Age-Related Macular Degeneration

| Posted On Feb 17, 2012 | By:

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD) is a disease associated with aging that causes vision loss in the center of your vision.  The disease affects the center of the retina called the macula.  The retina is the light sensitive tissue which lines the back of the eye like the film in the back of a camera.  The macula is used for fine central vision such as reading, recognizing faces, and recognizing colors.  Any damage to the macula may have a profound effect on one’s central vision and daily functioning. 

In many cases, AMD advances so slowly that people notice little or no change in their vision.  In others, the disease progresses faster and may lead to a significant loss of central vision in both eyes.  AMD is a leading cause of vision loss in Americans 60 years of age and older.

Macular degeneration occurs in two forms, “dry” and “wet.” Dry macular degeneration is by far the more common (85-90% of all instances) and typically the milder form of the disease.  It is caused by a build-up of waste products under the macula which damage the cells of the macula.  As dry AMD gets worse, you may see a blurred or distorted area in the center of your vision.  Dry AMD typically does not result in severe central vision loss, but can in some cases.

A small percentage of patients with dry AMD will progress to develop wet AMD.   In this form, there is a growth of abnormal blood vessels underneath the macula.  These vessels can quickly leak fluid or blood underneath the macula resulting in scar tissue and leaving permanent blind spots if left untreated.   

Macular degeneration almost NEVER totally blinds a patient.  Typically, peripheral or side vision remains unaffected.  Nonetheless, the effect on a person’s lifestyle from damages to central vision can be very troubling and can limit the ability to read or drive or recognize faces. 


The cause or causes of macular degeneration is unknown. Research has shown several risk factors for macular degeneration:

Much more work remains to be done to fully understand this disease.


Sometimes, early vision changes can be subtle.  This effect may be most noticed on a grid pattern, such as tiles or windowpanes.  Your eye doctor may provide you with a small paper chart that has crossed lines printed on it called an Amsler Grid. This grid can be used at home so that you may test yourself to find early changes.   If you notice any sudden change in your vision, especially distortion, you should contact your eye doctor immediately.  You can go here to download an Amsler Grid.

In order to diagnose AMD, your eye doctor will need to perform a dilated examination of the retina. Sometimes it is an easy matter to determine the extent of macular degeneration by simply looking at the retina. Those patients with early stages of the disease may require regular visits to the eye doctor to monitor any progression.  In some patients, further testing is required. The most common test is scanning a cross section of the retina with laser light, called Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT).  This quick and painless test can help to distinguish between the dry and wet type of the disease.   Less commonly, a series of special photographs following an injection of dye into a vein in the arm called a fluorescein angiogram can be helpful. 


 A major national trial called the Age Related Eye Disorder Study (AREDS), sponsored by the National Institutes of Health and National Eye Institute, showed that a combination of high dose vitamins and minerals (Beta-carotene, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Copper and Zinc) slowed down the progression of dry AMD in those patients who already have moderate AMD.  The therapeutic dosage for these supplements is very high, there are potential side effects, and not everyone will benefit from this regimen. You and your eye doctor should discuss if these vitamins are right for you; nonetheless, we recommend a healthy diet with green leafy vegetables in everyone when possible. 

A second phase to this study is underway (AREDS2) which is testing other supplements (lutein, zeaxanthine, and Omega 3 fatty acids); however, the results are not yet known.

The most exciting and effective treatment of wet AMD are the new biologic therapies. These drugs are administered by intra-ocular injection and work by blocking vascular growth factors (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor or VEGF).  Over the past five years a series of these drugs have provided a significant improvement in the visual outcomes in wet AMD.  The two most commonly used drugs currently are Lucentis and Avastin.  A recent study (the Comparison of AMD Treatments Trials or “CATT”) showed both of these two drugs stabilizing vision in over 90% of patients, and over 30% of patients experienced significant improvement in vision.  Harvard Vanguard was proud to participate in this important study.  Another drug named Eylea was recently approved for use in wet AMD and shows similar visual results.

These drugs offer much more hope for patients with wet AMD than we were able to provide in the recent past.  However, they require monthly visits to a retina doctor and frequent injections into the eye.  There are multiple new exciting treatments under investigation, and we are very hopeful the recent progress of new treatment options will continue.


AMD is a very frustrating disease. Although it is not always possible to prevent vision loss in some patients with AMD, one can still have a productive life. Vision aids are available to enable people with AMD to better utilize their remaining vision. These aids and devices are varied and may involve the use of magnifying lenses or glasses, small telescopes, large print books and large print appliances, closed circuit TV enlargers, electronic devices, computer software etc.  If your vision is poor due to macular degeneration, you should discuss with your doctor getting a referral to a vision rehabilitation specialist. This is a team of doctors and therapists who can work with you to help you get the most out of your remaining sight. 

Age Related Macular Degeneration is the most common cause of vision loss in people over 60.  There are effective prevention strategies and new treatments for the severe wet type of the disease.  We recommend a healthy diet and lifestyle and regular, comprehensive eye exams to screen for this and other eye diseases.

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About Dr. Christopher Andreoli

Christopher M. Andreoli, MD graduated from Boston University School of Medicine following undergraduate studies at Boston University College of Arts and Sciences. He then completed his residency, chief residency, and vitreo-retinal fellowship at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary/Harvard Medical School program. Since then, he has been practicing vitreo-retinal surgery at Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates in Boston. He is a clinical instructor of Ophthalmology at Harvard Medical School, with clinical appointments at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Massachusetts General Hospital, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. He is an active part of the teaching faculty of both the residency and vitreo-retinal fellowship at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. His research interests include clinical studies focusing on ocular trauma, age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. At Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates he has worked to develop a clinical trials research department in Visual Services and he is an active investigator on multiple national multi-center clinical trials.


  1. Dr. Andreoli,

    I’ve been writing about new technologies for treating retinal disease for the past several years on my online Journal (Irv Arons’ Journal –

    Last night, I posted a writeup about a new gene therapy approach for treating wet AMD. One injection, instead of 8-12 per year for Lucentis or Avastin, may stop wet AMD dead in its tracks for several years!

    If you would like to read more about this new therapy from Avalanche Biotech, that has just started human clinical trials, please take a look at my blog posting:

    Irv Arons

    A Harvard Vanguard patient

    Comment by Irv Arons on February 27, 2012 at 6:05 pm
  2. Thank you for your interest in our post and this disease. We are in a very exciting era where the treatment has improved dramatically over the past 5 years, and are expected to continually improve over the next five. This technology is one of several which are in the very early stages of development and human testing. We are all very hopeful that some or all of them will turn out to be safe and effective. But, at present, this is at least a few years away from being ready for widespread use if the trials prove to be promising.

    – Dr. Andreoli

    Comment by Harvard Vanguard on March 2, 2012 at 1:16 pm
  3. Great information! Thanks for posting this — I was able to find a lot of answers I was wondering about.

    Comment by Amber on January 6, 2014 at 4:24 am

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